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******************************************PART 1 逻辑连接词***************************

###1.1 让步###


1. Although(更书面)= though(更口语) =even if (即使,更偏假设性)=even though(虽然,更偏事实性)+句子


Devoted though we are to prosperity and freedom, we cannot shake off the judgmental strand of justice.用倒装

2. No matter how/what/who等= 疑问句+ever

No matter who/Whoever you are, you must keep the law.

注意:疑问句+ever 可以引导名词性从句

Whoever(≠ no matter who)comes will be welcome.

3. …, as long as…

You can do what you want, as long as you like.

4. 名词/表语/动词+ as(though)倒装,。。。,表“纵使”

Object as/though you may, I’ll go。

Small as atoms are, they are made up of still smaller units。

Lover of towns as I am, I realize that I owe a debt to my early country life.

5. Whether…or… 正反两方面,。。。表“不论。。。与否”

Whether you believe it or not, it's true.

You'll have to attend the ceremony whether you're free or busy.

6. Be原型+主语+表语(n, adj)= whether+主语+be动词+表语(n, adj)。不论。一文学性强的虚拟语气,表让步。

Be it historical tradition, faith and culture, or social system, values and level of development, those countries or regions are often different from one another.


7. Despite+n/ving = in spite of 尽管. (不能加句子)

Despite the fact that + 句子(太累赘)

Despite myself, … 情不自禁地…

Her words were so satirical(讽刺的)that I lost my temper in spite of myself。

8. Notwithstanding +sth尽管

But notwithstanding its ancient lineage, it is open to the following challenge.

9. Albeit 虽然即使

You are to be given one method of communication with your rival, albeit indirect communication.

###1.2 原因###







As a result of sth. =As a consequence of sth由于sth, sth是原因。

Because of

Owing to sth 介词

Thanks to...后面原因一般是积极性的

By virtue of sth

On account of

Be due to

Owe to sth 动词

Account for=result in 表示导致

Systematic economic forces account for the disastrous loses.


He attributed the opposition to a deep-seated attitude in military.

Sth would explain why …


For this reason,...

For one reason or another, 由于某种原因(不具体指明)

His travel articles are always, for one reason or another, fascinating.

For one thing, 在众多原因中指出其中一个

A lot of people don’t take the time to read contracts. For one thing, they’re often in very tiny print.

On this/that account, 由于这个、那个原因

She was divorced, and on that account alone my mother disliked her.


The reason why+结果/ that+原因

Greed is the reason why they do not deserve the money.

###1.3 结果###




原因+Result in+结果

This outcome will result in children starting bullying younger ones.






Excessive greed is therefore a vice that a good society should discourage if it can.


As such

As a result 最终,因此,结果

As a consequence/In consequence,...

###1.4 目的###



So that

Should law be neutral towards competing conceptions of virtue, so that people can be free to choose for themselves the best way to live?

In order that

Regular checks are required in order that safety standards are maintained.


To do sth,…

To answer it, we have to explore the meaning of justice.

In order to do sth

In order to determine who deserves what, we have to determine what virtues are worthy of honor and reward.


For the sake of sth=For sth’s sake 为了sth的目的

I hope you’re not doing this just for the sake of the money.

For clarity’s sake, I’d like to reword my statement.

###1.5 转折###



Yet 轻微转折

And yet we worry when judgments about virtue finds their way into laws.




Otherwise, 否则

On the contrary


Instead, a just society respects each people’s freedom to choose his or her own conception of the
good life.






Instead of sth

As opposed to 表示与前述对象的反转对比

The cost of these planes is £3 million, as opposed to the £2 million charged by their competitors.


While 引导从句,表明前后情况不同,做个对比

Rather than. 并不是、而不、并没有, 前后对等

Be honest rather than clever.诚实胜于机巧。

This policy might lead them to stay in harm’s way rather than flee to safety.

Rather than press for maximum advantages, people look out for one another.



While 既可以对比相反的东西,也可以对比稍有不同的

Ancient theories start with virtue while modern theories start with freedom.


On the other hand,

By/In comparison/contrast 对比之下

Their lives were exciting and glamorous; ours seemed dull by comparison.

The virtue argument, by contrast, rests on the judgment that greed is a vice that state should



In/By comparison with sth介词

This essay will briefly review the cons and pros of imprisonment in comparison with job training.

By comparison with the lively teenagers, the adults were a joyless lot.


Compared with/to

###1.7 类比###


Just as/like






As …as

They have sacrificed as surely, and as honorably, as those who have lost a limb.

The same as

Tourists find this park just the same as the one they visited previously.


In the same way/manner

###1.8 递进###






In addition to sth,

In addition to outlining the causes of this problem, this essay will also propose solutions.

In addition,

What’s more

Apart from B…其有两个意思,既可以:除了B(包括B),也表示:除了B(不包括B)


###1.9 举例###


The likes of 就像

Such as  


Their purchases of necessities like safe lodging are forced.

Including, 包括

e.g.  直接加sth,中间没有逗号


…is a case in point. 正在点儿上,指例子可以很好地阐述这个观点

Here is a case where…指出例子

Here is a case where the economy as a whole seemed to outweigh considerations of fairness.

Take ... as an example 以。。。为例


In some instances. 在某些情况中

For instances,

For example,

###1.10 假设###



If its price is higher, manufacturers will find it worth their while to produce more goods.

Given/provided/providing+名词/that 从句, 考虑到、假如

You can go out to play provided that you finish your homework first.

It’s a lot easier to get good marks on a short-answer question, providing you do it well.

Only if,唯有,唯一的条件是

The rebels say they are ready to stop fighting, but only if the prisoners are released.

On condition that,以。。。为前提,只有

Should 用于状语从句,表示“万一”,用法与if类似,可以在主句前,也可以在主句后;从句动词用原型。

This switch can be used to disengage the autopilot system should a malfunction occur in the system.

Should it rain tomorrow, the meeting would be put off. 

###1.11 解释,转述###


In other words,

Prosperity matters, in other words, because it contributes to our welfare.

That is, that is to say,



Some groups, namely students and pensioners, will benefit from the new tax.


Mean that

###1.12 并列###



A as well as B, 强调as前的名词或者形容词A, 不仅B,而且A

We must learn to look at problems all-sidedly,seeing the reverse as well as the obverse side of things. 强调要看到reverse即反面

not only A, but also B, 不同上,强调后面B,不仅A,而且B

He is a statesman as well as a scholar=He is no less a statesman than a scholar=He is not only a scholar but also a statesman.

and...A...as well. 则强调A

###1.13 说明观点###






Argue that.有“争论到”之意,用于对陈述相反观点

Some economists argued that the law was misconceived.

Believe that

Some believed that the exchange of goods should be governed by a just price.

Acknowledge that.

I have to acknowledge that it has the advantage of high efficiency.

Maintain that

Defenders of this law maintain that, under certain conditions, the free market is not truly free.

Hold that

Many people hold that government should be neutral on matters of virtue and vice.

Insist that

Those who insist that only bleeding wounds should be count believe that …

Claim that声称

The veteran’s group claimed that doing so would “debase” the honor.

Point out

As he points out, buyers under duress have no freedom.

Consider…(to be).认为。。。如何

Some people favor abortion rights, and others consider abortion to be murder.

Whereas some consider it an form of reverse discrimination against people who deserve admission on their merits.


Be of the opinion that

I am of the opinion that car ownership should be discouraged.


From a personal point of view,..

From a personal point of view, it is essential to reduce non-essential travel.


Sb’s point is that…某人的意思是

Plato’s point is that to grasp the meaning of justice and the nature of the good life, we must rise above from the prejudices and routines of everyday life.





Favor sth/doing sth

The captain favors including mental injuries.

Defend sth捍卫,支持

Some defend affirmative actions in college admissions as a way of righting past wrongs.


Advocates/defenders/proponents 反对者、支持者



My firm conviction is that punishment does not has much of a role to play in this.




Argue against. 反对

Jeff, a pro-market commentator writing the book Boston Globe, argued against this law.


Jim rejected the notion that these “unconscionable” prices reflected a truly free exchange.

A civilized country should reject the torture of terror suspects.

The argument for or against sth. 对某话题的支持/反对观点

We should also consider one further argument for this law.

Oppose sth/sb/doing

A veteran’s group opposed awarding the medal for psychological injuries.


Citizens of pluralist societies disagree about such things?

Disagree with

Therefore I have to disagree almost entirely with the given statement.


Opponents 反对者,是名词

Not surprisingly, the opponents of this law invoke these two similar arguments for free markets.


It is true that…but…用于承认一方后,强调另一方




advantages and disadvantages

Its advantages overweigh its disadvantages.

pros and cons

strengths and weaknesses

merits and demerits

benefits and problems

Even if high prices call forth a greater supply of goods, this benefit has to be weighed against the burden such prices impose on those least to afford them.

On the plus/positive/negative side

On the downside


sth do more good than harm

A Outweigh B,A超出B,更重要,用以连接上述的优缺点词汇

The possible benefits outweigh the risks involved.




Conclude that.

So we can conclude that ….


In brief/in summary/conclusion

To summarize




According to/Based on

According to the textbook context, this question divides ancient and modern political thought.




It is said that…据说

It seems that

The focus of … is on sth.

The focus of this essay is on the causes of and solutions to this problem.


In terms of/ regarding/concerning/ when it comes to sth/as for/for/with regard to/with respect to关于、至于,talking about/speaking of比较口语化

***************************************PART 2 重要句式结构***********************




What I am proficient in is ancient Chinese literature.

That’s where he met me.



Those+adj/ving/ved/to v/介词,代表一类人或物

All those eligible will receive a cash handout.

The new law clearly benefits those earning the most money.

Only 18 percent of those surveyed opposed the idea.

I'm going to sort these old books into those to be kept and those to be thrown away.

Have some consideration for those without a job.

Those+从句who(人)/which(物)/whose(表归属)/in which(表位置),Those相当于一个名词

Only those who had booked in advance were allowed in.

We must try to find out those which may be attacked most easily.

This disease is more likely to strike those whose immune systems are already below par.

The poems which he wrote in the countryside are generally agreed to be those in which he found his true voice.

He who can be a best servant can be a best leader.


在句子中,任何名词随时都可以用 ved/ving/介词/形容词来修饰,可以使得单句也有复杂结构,却比定语从句简单



I am considering how to manage this assignment But who is to judge what is virtue and what is vice?


动词分词做定语(ving, ved),可以替代定语从句

His work as a consultant consisted in advising foreign companies on the siting of new factories.


句子,especially+名词或者从句. 这样可以对句子进行更加精确的描述。

Members of a competitive team can always keep them motivated, especially when confronted with tough situation and fierce competition.


…, if any. (表示如果有…的话)

State your hypothesis or theory, if any.

What, if anything, should the law do about it?


Rather, 单独出现表示“更准确的说”

Rather, parents should employ a variety of methods to discipline their children.


用插入语. 补充信息,增强节奏感:两种形式:逗号或者横线隔开

But in a market society, the economists observed, prices are set by demand and supply.

They are no more “special” or “fair” than other prices that market conditions—including
those promoted by a hurricane—may bring about. 补充信息。

Higher prices have the advantages, economists argued, of limiting the use of such things by consumers. 转述说的话时,“某某说”可以做插入语。

Jeff, a pro-market commentator writing the book Boston Globe, argued against this law on similar grounds. 对身份的补充。

Many people, including those who support this law, find the virtue argument discomfiting. 包含的对象的具体说明。

All they ever see is the play of shadows on the wall, a reflection of objects they can never apprehend. 同位语,用以解释或者补充前面的名词


To do sth 作主语

To punish a very young child is both wrong and foolish.


By doing sth, … 表示做事的方式途径

By providing incentives for suppliers to produce more of the needed goods, it do more good than harm.



Not surprisingly, the opponents of this law invoke these two similar arguments for free markets.


Doing/To do A is not doing/to do B. 做A并不是做B. 表示从反面对A的补充

To acknowledge the moral forces of virtue argument is not to insist it must always prevail over competing considerations.



It is about cultivating the attitudes and the qualities of characters, on which a good society depends.


Cannot …without…没有。。。就不能。。。

Aristotle maintains that we cannot figure out what a just consideration is without first reflecting of the most desirable way of life.



At the heart of the disagreement are rival conceptions of moral character.

Underlying the phenomenon was a profound reason.


Sth is not (that)…but (that)…,

The public’s objection to the bonuses is not that they reward greed but that they reward failure.

The answer is that moral reflection is not a solitary pursuit but a public endeavor.


构词形式:A-被动: 被A。。。的

A market-driven society

A knowledge-based economy



Financially better-off


Do 用于动词前表示强调

He did want them to take responsibility for their failure.



Couldn’t it be argued that难道不能认为。。。,

How can it be。。 怎么可能。。

What would sth be if…如果…sth 会怎样?


With+ved/ving/to do/sth,


动词分词前置或者后置:ved, 句子,ving…

Awarded the Noble Prize, Yoyouyou become known by public, making her the most influential figure of this year.

Confronted with this situation, we…..

Socrates suggests that, having glimpsed the sun, only the philosopher is fit to rule the cave dwellers, if he can somehow be coaxes into the darkness where they live.




Let us not forget either that…咱们也不要忘记。。。

Let us forget either that traditional products, whether these be medicines or food, provide employment for local people.


*******************************************PART 3 词组与句子搭配***************************************


Include but not limited in sth

We welcome potential candidates including but not limited those who have affluent experience in education.


Both...and ….(两者都)

Now women work both before and after having their children.



Either you or I am wrong.



Neither he nor she is at home today.

The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it will never forget what they did here.


There is no such thing as xx. 并没有这种叫xx的

There is no such thing as a “just price”.



His boss is too hard to get along with.


It is worthwhile/worth one’s while/worth while doing(=worth doing)/ to do something(= worthy to do sth).

Be worth+名词形式(名词,doing sth)

Be worthy to do sth/ of doing sth

If its price is higher, manufacturers will find it worth their while to produce more goods.

It points out a moral argument worth seriously taking.


Sb get sth done. /sth get done. 表示sth 被怎么样。

It is how goods and services get allocated in a free society.


The debate about sth raises hard questions of …引出问题


Take advantage of 利用使用

Is it wrong for sellers of goods and services to take advantage of a natural disaster by charging whatever the market will bear?


Not only(simply)…, (but) also…

These questions are not only about how individuals should treat one another. They are also about what the law should be, how society should be organizes.


More than. 不单单

Over the last decade, the prices more than doubled. But the outrage at this behavior is more

than mindless anger. More than a personal vice, it is at odds with civic virtue.


The question is … /the problem with… is that问题是

The question is whether, or to what extent, people are free rather than forced.


Mean that+从句,mean doing sth意味着

Aristotle teaches that justice means that giving people what they deserve.


It is … that/to do…

So it is understandable that people are not keen to reward it.


The line between A and B..

The line between success and failure is clear.


Have a hard time doing sth. 艰难地做某事

I have a hard time understanding the public’s furry.


Once and for all一劳永逸

Political philosopher cannot resolve these arguments once and for all.


Turn to doing sth转而做某事

People turn to buying new brands.


Have access to sth

Some  may argue that all people are entitled to have access to the same products.


Tell/distinguish…from…/ Tell/distinguish the difference between A and B.


Have long been 很早就。。。

There has long been controversy about the negative effects of travelling by cars


否定或者消极的陈述,let alone …。更不用说。。。

He cannot read an article fluently, let alone write a decent essay.


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